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Los tipos más comunes de respiraderos de techo para la ventilación para ático

By Wendy Helfenbaum

January 30, 2023

Image of a brown MasterFlow product installed on a grey roof.

Cómo seleccionar productos para su sistema de ventilación para ático: Techos de GAF

Los respiraderos de techo forman la base del sistema de ventilación para ático. Permiten que el ático respire, y ayudan a proteger su sistema de techo de los daños ocasionados por el calor y la humedad.

Así es como funcionan dos tipos importantes de respiraderos de techo y los beneficios que pueden aportar a su casa.

¿Qué productos necesito para tener un sistema efectivo de ventilación para ático?

Un sistema de ventilación para ático consta de respiraderos de entrada y respiraderos de escape. En conjunto, estos productos se pueden utilizar para crear un sistema de ventilación para ático equilibrado que ayude a reducir la temperatura del ático y el exceso de humedad.

Los respiraderos de entrada, ubicados en la parte inferior del techo o cerca de ella, son una parte muy importante de su sistema de ventilación para ático. Estos respiraderos permiten el ingreso de aire fresco desde el exterior hacia el ático. Si no ingresa aire, entonces no puede salir aire, lo que reduce la eficacia del sistema de ventilación para ático y podría causar la degradación del sistema de techo.

Esta corriente de aire fluye continuamente por el ático y luego vuelve al exterior a través de los respiraderos de escape situados en la parte superior del techo o cerca de ella. Estos respiraderos ayudan a proteger el sistema de techo desde adentro hacia fuera. Es importante que la cantidad de ventilación de escape cerca de la cumbrera o sobre ella no exceda la ventilación de entrada sobre el sofito o cerca de él.

Tipos de respiraderos de entrada

Existen dos tipos de respiraderos de entrada: los respiraderos de sofito y los respiraderos de entrada para techos. La mayoría de los hogares tienen respiraderos de sofito si están construidos con voladizos o aleros de techo. Normalmente, como el sofito se encuentra en el punto más bajo del techo, es el lugar perfecto para que el aire fresco entre al ático. Los respiraderos de sofito tienen varios estilos, incluyendo respiraderos individuales, hiladas continuas y paneles de sofito ventilados.

Los hogares con sofitos limitados o sin ellos pueden utilizar respiraderos de entrada para techos, que no requieren que los propietarios de esas viviendas construyan sofitos nuevos y costosos o modifiquen los existentes.

Elección de los respiraderos de escape para su sistema de ventilación para ático

La ventilación escape es más eficiente cuando se instala en el punto más alto del techo o cerca de él, donde el aire caliente y húmedo puede salir fácilmente. Los respiraderos de escape se dividen en tres categorías comunes: estático, eléctrico y mecánico.

1. Respiraderos de escape estáticos

Dado que utilizan el flujo natural del aire a medida que aumenta el aire caliente, los respiraderos de escape estáticos no requieren electricidad.

Hay tres tipos de respiraderos de escape estáticos:

  1. Respiraderos de cumbrera: se instalan en la mayoría de los hogares, ya que este tipo de respiradero de escape es eficaz y bastante fácil de instalar en el punto más alto del techo: la cumbrera o el pico. Es la ubicación ideal para permitir que el aire caliente salga del ático. Además, se mimetiza con el acabado del techo gracias a su bajo perfil. Los respiraderos se cubren con las tejas de cumbrera.
  2. Respiraderos para techos a cuatro aguas: Los respiraderos para techos a cuatro aguas son muy similares a los respiraderos de cumbrera en función y apariencia. Ayudan a ventilar las casas que tienen diseños de techo a cuatro aguas con un área de cumbrera muy limitada o inexistente. Para proporcionar un aspecto uniforme, los respiraderos para techos a cuatro aguas se instalan normalmente a lo largo de la intersección, mientras que las ranuras de aire debajo de los respiraderos para techos a cuatro aguas se ubican solo en la parte superior de la intersección. Según el diseño de su techo, los respiraderos para techos a cuatro aguas pueden combinarse con respiraderos de cumbrera para proporcionar la cantidad de respiraderos de escape necesaria para el ático.
  3. Rejillas para techos: también conocidas como respiraderos de caja, las rejillas para techo ofrecen otra opción de respiradero de escape para diseños de techos modernos, techos a cuatro aguas o techos con áreas limitadas de la cumbrera o sin cumbrera. Para lograr la cantidad adecuada de ventilación de escape, las rejillas para techo normalmente requieren la instalación de múltiples respiraderos debido a su pequeño tamaño. Sin embargo, las rejillas se pueden instalar en la parte trasera del techo para obtener un mejor acabado. Pueden instalarse en techos nuevos o existentes.

2. Respiraderos de escape eléctricos

Un respiradero de escape eléctrico ayuda a eliminar un gran volumen de aire caliente y húmedo del ático. Alimentados por electricidad, energía solar o una combinación de ambos, a menudo, se los denomina de doble potencia o híbridos, ya que estos respiraderos tienen diferentes clasificaciones de flujo de aire, según la capacidad en pies cúbicos por minuto (cubic feet per minute, CFM): cuanto más alto es el flujo de aire en CFM, más rápido el respiradero expulsa el aire del ático. Los respiraderos mecánicos normalmente incluyen un control de termostato y, algunos modelos, cuentan con un control de higrostato/termostato opcional.

Hay dos tipos de respiraderos de escape mecánicos:

  1. Montaje en el techo: en opciones eléctricas, solares o de doble potencia, estos respiraderos de escape se instalan sobre las aberturas de la cubierta del techo.
  2. Montaje en techo a dos aguas: este tipo de respiradero de escape se puede instalar fácilmente desde el interior del ático, lo que ayuda a evitar la perforación en el techo.

3. Respiraderos de escape mecánicos

Los respiraderos de escape mecánicos, como las turbinas de viento, utiliza la energía del viento para eliminar el exceso de calor y humedad del ático. Con el viento adecuado, la turbina gira y extrae el calor y la humedad del ático. Las turbinas se sitúan a mayor altura sobre la superficie del techo, por lo que sobresalen más que otras opciones de escape, pero mueven el aire de forma eficaz. Cuando no hay viento, funciona de manera similar a un respiradero de escape estático.

¿Qué tipo de respiraderos son mejores para mi techo?

Cada casa es diferente. Los mejores respiraderos para su techo dependerán del estilo arquitectónico, el diseño de su techo y el clima local. Es importante no mezclar diferentes tipos de respiraderos de escape en el mismo espacio del ático, ya que puede impedir que el flujo de aire atraviese correctamente el espacio.

Un profesional calificado en tejados puede implementar un sistema equilibrado de ventilación para ático de respiraderos de entrada y respiraderos de escape que ayudará a reducir el exceso de calor y humedad del ático. Para ayudar a calcular las necesidades de ventilación para ático, haga clic aquí o póngase en contacto con un contratista certificado por GAF* cerca de usted.


* Los contratistas inscritos en programas de certificación de GAF no son empleados ni agentes de GAF, y GAF no controla ni supervisa de otro modo estos negocios independientes.

Los contratistas pueden recibir beneficios, como puntos de recompensa por lealtad y descuentos en herramientas de comercialización por parte de GAF por participar en el programa y por ofrecer garantías mejoradas de GAF, que requieren el uso de una cantidad mínima de productos GAF.

Generación de plomo para propietarios de viviendas de techos residenciales

Contratista para residencias con pendientes escarpadas

Techo de asfalto con pendiente escarpada

Ventilación y respiraderos para áticos

About the Author

Wendy Helfenbaum is a Montreal-based journalist, content marketing writer and TV producer who covers design, architecture, real estate, gardening and travel for many publications and brands, including Country Gardens, Metropolis Magazine, Realtor.com, Marriott Traveler, Costco Connection, Toll Brothers, PBS NextAvenue.org and many more. Wendy loves keeping up with current design trends and is addicted to home improvement DIY reality shows. Follow her @WendyHelfenbaum.

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